The Complex

New U.S. Drone Base Is America's Latest Move to Contain China

U.S. officials swear that America's military and diplomatic build-up in Asia is not an attempt to contain a rising China. But they sure are parking lots of advanced firepower on Beijing's doorstep. The U.S. is even welcoming the increased militarization of Japan, the country America barred from having an offensive force in the aftermath of World War II.

On October 3, U.S. and Japanese officials announced that the U.S. Air Force will be stationing RQ-4 Global Hawk drones in Japan. The Global Hawk is a large, long-range spy jet meant to complement its 50-year-old counterpart, the legendary U-2 Dragon Lady.

This not only marks the first time U.S. drones will be based in Japan. The basing of the [Global Hawks] puts an American long-range intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance capability in the heart of Asia.

U.S. officials say two or three of the high-flying drones will be stationed somewhere in Japan next spring. While no one said this explicitly, the high-tech aircraft will be able to easily monitor the East China Sea, including the uninhabited Senkaku Islands. The Japanese-controlled Senkakus sit in a potentially oil-rich section of the sea less than 150 miles northeast of Taiwan. China also claims sovereignty over them in a dispute that is increasing tensions between the two Asian powers.

In addition to the Global Hawks, U.S. and Japanese officials announced plans to base several other types of America's newest combat aircraft in Japan soon.

The Global Hawks will be joined in Japan by two squadrons of U.S. Marine Corps MV-22 Osprey tiltrotors. An MV-22 can haul a couple dozen Marines over long distances at airplane speeds with the ability to take off and land vertically like a helicopter. Needless to say, these craft could be very useful in responding to emergencies in the Pacific, where American defense officials often lament "the tyranny of distance."

The Marines will also station F-35B Joint Strike Fighters in Japan starting in 2017, officials announced. The Marines are following the U.S. Air Force's lead by positioning the stealth fighters in Japan. The air service announced last year that the first overseas bases for its fleet of F-35As will be in Japan. In addition to the American F-35 squadrons, the Japanese, Australian, and possibly Singaporean air forces will all fly the Joint Strike Fighter, ringing China's southeast flank with the stealth jets.

It's worth pointing out that the U.S. Navy will base some of its brand-new P-8 Poseidon submarine- and ship-hunting jets in Japan starting in December. The P-8 is a navalized version of Boeing's 737 airliner equipped with sonar gear, powerful radars, torpedos, and even Harpoon anti-ship missiles. (Chinese-made counterfeit parts have been found on P-8s, causing their critical ice-detection systems to fail.)

Defense officials also announced that Japan will get another powerful X-band radar capable of detecting missile launches from places like North Korea. The U.S. and Japan will also up cooperation on cybersecurity and intelligence efforts. The whole weapons package is part of a revised agreement between the U.S. and Japan that aims to bolster the longtime American ally's defenses in the face of an increasingly aggressive China and an unpredictable North Korea.

The agreement is framed by a U.S.-Japanese "strategic vision" for East Asia and the Pacific that "reflecting our shared values of democracy, the rule of law, free and open markets, and respect for human rights, will effectively promote peace, security, stability, and economic prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region," according to a State Department announcement.

Tokyo is actively considering a revision of its constitution to allow it to enter combat to defend an ally that has been attacked. Japan's constitution, written after World War II, only allows it to engage in combat when it has been attacked.

Japan is also looking at expanding its defense budget, "strengthening its capability to defend its sovereign territory, and broadening regional contributions, including capacity-building efforts vis-à-vis Southeast Asian countries," reads the announcement. All of these moves are "welcomed" by the United States.

The latest news out of Japan comes several months after the top U.S. Air Force general in the Pacific revealed that American fighters, bombers, and tankers will constantly deploy to a string of bases in the Pacific and Indian ocean regions. These facilities aren't slated for permanent occupation by American aircraft -- or at least that's what American commanders say. Instead, these sites will see a steady stream of U.S. units visiting on a regular basis.

These temporary American bases range from Tinian and Saipan to Australia, Singapore, Thailand, India, and possibly sites in the Philippines, Malaysia, and Indonesia. American jets permanently stationed at dozens of U.S. bases in the Pacific -- as well as at bases in the U.S. -- will rotate in and out of these airfields under a concept that harkens back to the Cold War.

"Back in the late, great days of the Cold War, we had a thing called Checkered Flag: We rotated almost every CONUS [Continental United States] unit to Europe," said Gen. Herbert "Hawk" Carlisle last July. "Every two years, every unit would go and work out of a collateral operating base in Europe. We're turning to that in the Pacific."

(Click here for a map of the sites the U.S. is considering rotating its forces in and out of in the Pacific.)

Interestingly, Japan is helping to pay for the construction of bare-bones bases on Tinian and Saipan, according to the State Department announcement. This is partially in exchange for the U.S. Marines pulling some troops out of Okinawa and partially to allow the Japanese military access to the bases for training purposes. But the bottom line is that the U.S. is prepositioning forces around China. And Japan is only too happy to help.

--Additional reporting from Asia by Gordon Lubold.

U.S. Air Force

The Complex

Exclusive: Air Force Grounds Fighter Jets as Shutdown Takes Hold

Entire fighter squadrons are grounded. The Defense Department's Middle East specialists are barred from the Pentagon. Thousands of the Intelligence Community's top geeks are at home playing Minecraft. The shutdown of the United States government is starting to have very real impacts on the American defense and intelligence infrastructure. Director of National Intelligence Jim Clapper even calls it a "dream scenario" for other countries to recruit spies who ordinarily work for the federal government -- when that government is actually open. There's even a poor Air Force reservist who has been deemed "nonessential" at all three jobs he holds.

The slightly good news? Lawmakers might -- might -- do something about this today. "I hope issues of partisan politics can be set aside and we can all come together and pass, right now by the end of the day, a continuing resolution to fully fund the Department of Defense and intelligence community," said Sen. Ted Cruz during a Senate Judiciary Committee hearing where Clapper appeared this morning. Cruz is at the heart of the debate over Obamacare that has led to the government shutdown.

In addition to calling the shutdown a foreign intelligence fantasy, Clapper told senators during today's hearing that he will recommend to President Barack Obama that he sign a continuing resolution funding the Pentagon's and Intelligence Community's civilian workers despite the shutdown.

Clapper also said he is "very concerned about the jeopardy to the country" and that he cannot "guarantee" the safety of the United States due to the shutdown.

The National Security Agency (NSA), one of the 16 government agencies that make up the U.S. Intelligence Community, has furloughed "over 960 Ph.D.s, over 4,000 computer scientists, over a thousand mathematicians," NSA chief Gen. Keith Alexander told the committee. "Our nation needs people like this."

It looks like the shutdown will also prevent the Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board from conducting its public hearing into the NSA's domestic surveillance on Oct. 4. The board just announced that it is rescheduling that hearing because government witnesses are unable to appear due to the shutdown.

At the Pentagon, the staff that helps Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel and other top officials formulate U.S. military policy toward nations like Egypt, Syria, Iran, and Israel have discovered they are not essential. "There have been personnel throughout policy furloughed, but not all," Defense Department spokeswoman Cmdr. Amy Derrick-Frost told FP in an email. "This includes the Middle East desk. I don't have specific names or numbers."

The furloughs are also having impacts at the military units tasked with preparing for and fighting the nation's wars.

U.S. Strategic Command, the organization in charge of America's nuclear and cyber arsenal, will see 85 percent of the 2,000 civilians that make up most of its headquarters staff furloughed. Air Force Special Operations Command has also furloughed 1,200 or its 1,560 civilian employees.

Even though troops are officially exempt from furloughs, some are seeing their missions taken away.

The Air Force's Air Combat Command (ACC) -- home to the service's fighter jets, B-1 bombers, and most of its drones and spy planes -- has grounded squadrons that are not set to deploy abroad after January.

"If you're on to the hook to deploy before January, we're saying go ahead and train," ACC spokesman Lt. Col. Tadd Sholtis told FP. However, if a unit is waiting until after that, its aircraft will remain on the ground. A striking example of this can be found at Mountain Home Air Force Base in Idaho. None of the 366th Fighter Wing's squadrons of F-15E Strike Eagles are slated to deploy before January. This means the only fighters based at Mountain Home flying this fall are the F-15SGs of the Singaporean Air Force that are permanently stationed there. Interestingly, German and Canadian air force jets are also flying out of the Idaho base on training deployments of their own.

In addition to squadrons set to deploy, ACC squadrons that train F-22 Raptor, MC-12 Liberty, and the command's various drone crews will remain airborne. A limited number of "urgent" tests flights are also being conducted. Of ACC's 10,000 civilians, 7,500 are at home. Given the fact that the command is still providing fighters, bombers, and spy planes around the globe, it may have to find a way to bring some of these people back to work if the shutdown continues for too long.

"There continues to be a high demand for combat air power during the shutdown, and unfortunately we have fewer people supporting only moderately reduced operations," said Sholtis. "Should the current shutdown persist, we may need to bring additional personnel back to work in order to continue to support operational requirements."

Meanwhile, the very real impact of the shutdown is being felt by U.S. Air Force Reserve Maj. Eric Brine.

Brine normally works on the Air Force staff as a civilian general-service employee. But for part of this year, he is on loan to Virginia Democratic Sen. Tim Kaine's office as a presidential management fellow. Meanwhile, as a member of the Air Force Reserve, he contributes about two months out of the year working at the Pentagon's public affairs shop. Brine just got done finding out he's "nonessential" in all three jobs.

It's tough, said the father of four, "to be nonessential, essentially everywhere I work," he told FP's Situation Report this morning. Yesterday, he first reported to the Air Force at the Pentagon to fill out paperwork to enter furlough status. Then he went to Capitol Hill to be formally furloughed from that job. (Because of the government shutdown, all three of Kaine's advisors on national security are furloughed. That's a tough one -- Kaine serves on both the Senate Armed Services and the Senate Foreign Relations committees.)

Then Brine headed back to the Pentagon yesterday, only to be told that his orders to report as a reservist at the public affairs shop had also been canceled, since Reservists are also not considered essential. In fact, Brine, a major in the reserves, was expecting to be promoted this week at the Pentagon while on duty -- by Kaine.

"I spent a very full day getting temporarily canned all over town," Brine told Situation Report. "So now the joke is that I got the furlough hat trick. I've got a bunch of jobs and no income. So much for hard work paying off."

U.S. Air Force